Backend Development Best Practices
In our previous exploration, we unveiled the often-overlooked world of backend development and its pivotal role in powering websites and applications. Now, as we journey deeper into this dynamic landscape, our upcoming article focuses on best practices and fundamental terminologies that optimize efficiency and scalability in the backend domain. We’ll uncover valuable insights and practical tips that empower developers to construct resilient digital foundations, elevating the performance and scalability of websites and applications, and ensuring backend development remains the unsung hero of the digital world. Stay tuned as we dive into the intricate machinery that powers your seamless online experiences.
In the realm of software development, it’s easy to get lost in the sea of technical terms and jargon. We’re here to help you navigate this vast landscape with simple language and in-depth explanations. From authentication to cron jobs, we’ll break down 35 key concepts in the software world to provide you with a clear understanding of each.
Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or a system. It’s like showing your ID card to prove you are who you claim to be. Without proper authentication, you can’t access secured areas.
Once you’ve proven your identity through authentication, authorization determines what you’re allowed to do. It’s like getting a pass after showing your ID, but the pass specifies which areas you can enter and what actions you can take.
3. Access Token
An access token is a digital pass. It’s given to you after successful authentication and allows you to perform specific actions for a limited time. Think of it as a key that opens a door, but it expires after a while.
4. Refresh Token
Access tokens don’t last forever. When they expire, a refresh token comes into play. It’s like renewing your key without going through the entire ID-checking process again.
5. Dependency Injection
Dependency injection is a technique that allows you to provide the necessary components (dependencies) to a software module from the outside. It’s like giving a machine different tools to perform various tasks, making the machine versatile.
6. Dependency Inversion
Dependency inversion is a principle that suggests high-level modules should not depend on low-level modules. Instead, both should rely on abstractions. Think of it as adhering to a set of rules rather than one part of a system directly depending on another.
Middleware acts as a bridge in software systems. It’s like a mediator between two parties, handling requests and responses. Imagine it as a translator in a conversation, ensuring that both sides understand each other.
Multi-threading is a way to make a program more efficient by breaking it into smaller tasks that can run simultaneously. It’s like having multiple cooks working together in a kitchen to prepare a meal faster.
Multi-processing is similar to multi-threading, but instead of multiple tasks within one program, it involves running multiple programs at the same time. It’s like having different chefs working in their own kitchens, each handling a different dish.
Concurrency is the practice of managing multiple tasks in overlapping timeframes. It’s like juggling different chores in your daily routine, where you switch between them to get everything done.
Parallelism, on the other hand, is about performing multiple tasks simultaneously to improve performance. It’s like having several people working together on different parts of a project at the same time.
Queuing is all about organizing tasks in a specific order. Think of it as people waiting in line to get their turn at a service counter. It ensures that tasks are processed one at a time in an orderly fashion.
13. Database Transaction
A database transaction is a sequence of actions that are treated as a single unit. It’s like making a series of changes to your bank account – either all of them happen, or none of them do.
14. Vertical Scaling
Vertical scaling involves upgrading a single machine’s hardware to handle more work. It’s like enhancing the abilities of a superhero, making them stronger and more capable.
15. Horizontal Scaling
Horizontal scaling, on the other hand, involves adding more machines to distribute the workload. It’s like forming a team of superheroes, each with their unique strengths, to tackle a big task together.
16. Database Sharding
Sharding is like dividing a library into sections based on the first letter of the author’s last name. It’s a way of splitting data into smaller, more manageable pieces distributed across multiple servers.
17. Reverse Proxy
A reverse proxy is like a security guard who directs visitors to the right location. It handles incoming requests and forwards them to the appropriate destination, often adding an extra layer of protection.
18. Forward Proxy
A forward proxy, on the other hand, is like a privacy shield. It acts on behalf of users to access the internet, concealing their identities and protecting their online activities.
19. SOLID Principle
SOLID is an acronym that stands for Single Responsibility, Open-Closed, Liskov Substitution, Interface Segregation, and Dependency Inversion. These principles guide software design by promoting clear, modular, and maintainable code.
Microservices are like building blocks. Each one has a specific function, and they work together to create a complex application. This approach makes development and maintenance more manageable.
21. Distributed System
A distributed system is like a virtual orchestra with musicians located in different places, playing in harmony. It involves multiple computers working together to achieve a common goal.
22. Event Bus
An event bus is like a bulletin board where different parts of an application post messages for each other. It enables asynchronous communication between various components.
23. Event Loop The event loop is like a librarian managing the reading room. It’s the core of non-blocking, asynchronous applications, ensuring that different tasks are executed efficiently.
Caching is like keeping frequently used books on a bookshelf right next to you. It stores data for quick access, reducing load times and improving system performance.
25. Load Balancing
Load balancing is like ensuring smooth traffic flow at a busy intersection. It distributes incoming requests across multiple servers to prevent overload and ensure efficient use of resources.
In the online world, a session is like keeping track of your shopping cart as you browse an e-commerce site. It stores information about your activities, ensuring a seamless experience as you move from page to page.
Multiplexing is like sending multiple phone calls over a single phone line. It optimizes data transmission and bandwidth usage by allowing different data streams to share the same channel.
28. REST API
A REST API provides a standardized way to access and manipulate resources using HTTP methods like GET (retrieve data), POST (create data), PUT (update data), and DELETE (remove data).
29. Data Normalizing
Data normalization is like tidying up a room, and putting things in their proper places. It’s the process of organizing data to reduce redundancy and improve storage efficiency.
30. Data Denormalizing
Data denormalization is like creating a cozy reading nook, with books close at hand. It involves introducing redundancy in data storage for the sake of faster data retrieval and simpler queries.
31. Asynchronous Operation
Asynchronous operation is like sending a letter by mail and not waiting around for an immediate response. It allows a program to continue running while waiting for a time-consuming task to complete.
32. Data Archiving
Data archiving is like moving old books to the basement to make room for new ones. It involves storing data that’s no longer in active use, improving system performance by keeping the most relevant data readily accessible.
33. Database Locking
Database locking is like reserving a book from the library. It prevents multiple users from modifying the same data simultaneously to avoid conflicts and ensure data consistency.
Elasticsearch is like a supercharged search engine for your data. It enables you to search, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of data in real-time, making it valuable for businesses and applications with extensive datasets.
35. Cron Job
A cron job is like setting a reminder on your calendar. It’s a scheduled task that a computer executes automatically at specified intervals, helping with routine, repetitive, and timely operations.
In the ever-expanding world of software development, these concepts are your building blocks for understanding and mastering the intricacies of digital technology. Whether you’re a novice or an experienced developer, these fundamental ideas will serve as your foundation for navigating the software landscape.